Prostate CancerAbout

Prostate cancer is found mainly in older men. In the U.S., about 1 out of 5 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer.

Prostate cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the prostate.



The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system. It lies just below the bladder (the organ that collects and empties urine) and in front of the rectum (the lower part of the intestine). It is about the size of a walnut and surrounds part of the urethra (the tube that empties urine from the bladder).


In Mexico, during 2014, approx. 233,000 new cases of prostate cáncer were diagnosed. (IMSS).


Each year about 40,000 men in the UK are diagnosed, it’s the most common cancer in men.

Most of the time prostate cancer is detected before a man develops any symptoms. About 85% of prostate cancers are detected because of abnormailites in either bloodwork (PSA screening test) or by rectal exam (physician feels an abnormality).

Prostate cancer is found mainly in older men. In the U.S., about 1 out of 5 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer.

Consult with your doctor if you experience any of the above symptoms.


Because these symptoms can also indicate the presence of other diseases or disorders, such as BPH or prostatitis, men will undergo a thorough work-up to determine the underlying cause.


Rarely do men experience symptoms that might indicate the presence of prostate cancer and that include:

• Difficulty starting urination or holding back urine

• Weak or interrupted flow of urine

• Difficulty in having an erection

• Painful ejaculation

• Blood in urine

• Frequent pain or stiffness in the lower back, hips, or upper thighs

Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options


An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual.


A procedure in which a probe that is about the size of a finger is inserted into the rectum to check the prostate. The probe is used to bounce high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissues called a sonogram. Transrectal ultrasound may be used during a biopsy


An exam of the rectum. The doctor inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into the rectum and feels the prostate through the rectal wall for lumps or abnormalities


PSA is a substance made by the prostate that may be found in an increased amount in the blood of men who have prostate cancer. PSA levels may also be high in men who have an infection or inflammation of the prostate or BPH (an enlarged, but non-cancerous, prostate).

Transrectal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

 A procedure that uses a strong magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body. A probe that gives off radio waves is inserted into the rectum near the prostate. This helps the MRI machine make clearer pictures of the prostate and nearby tissue. A transrectal MRI is done to find out if the cancer has spread outside of the prostate into nearby tissues. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI).


Biopsy

The removal of cells or tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope by a pathologist. The pathologist will check the tissue sample to see if there are cancer cells and find out the Gleason score. The Gleason score ranges from 2-10 and describes how likely it is that a tumor will spread. The lower the number, the less likely the tumor is to spread.


A transrectal biopsy is used to diagnose prostate cancer. A transrectal biopsy is the removal of tissue from the prostate by inserting a thin needle through the rectum and into the prostate. This procedure is usually done using transrectal ultrasound to help guide where samples of tissue are taken from. A pathologist views the tissue under a microscope to look for cancer cells.





Most men diagnosed with prostate cancer do not die of it.

Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options


The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options depend on the following:

• The stage of the cancer (level of PSA, Gleason score, grade of the tumor, how much of the prostate is affected by the cancer, and whether the cancer has spread to other places in the body).
• The patient’s age.
• Whether the cancer has just been diagnosed or has recurred (come back).

Treatment options also may depend on the following:

• Whether the patient has other health problems.
• The expected side effects of treatment.
• Past treatment for prostate cancer.
• The wishes of the patient.


Most men diagnosed with prostate cancer do not die of it.


After prostate cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the prostate or to other parts of the body


The process used to find out if cancer has spread within the prostate or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. In prostate cancer, staging tests may not be done unless the patient has symptoms or signs that the cancer has spread, such as bone pain, a high PSA level, or a high Gleason score.


Cancer may spread from where it began to other parts of the body


When cancer spreads to another part of the body, it is called metastasis. Cancer cells break away from where they began (the primary tumor) and travel through the lymph system or blood.

Lymph system. The cancer gets into the lymph system, travels through the lymph vessels, and forms a tumor (metastatic tumor) in another part of the body.
Blood. The cancer gets into the blood, travels through the blood vessels, and forms a tumor (metastatic tumor) in another part of the body.

The metastatic tumor is the same type of cancer as the primary tumor. For example, if prostate cancer spreads to the bone, the cancer cells in the bone are actually prostate cancer cells. The disease is metastatic prostate cancer, not bone cancer.


The following stages are used for prostate cancer


Stage 1

The cancer is very small and confined to the prostate. It can’t be felt during a rectal examination.


Stage 2

The cancer can be felt as a hard lump during a rectal examination, but it’s still within the prostate gland.


Stage 3

The cancer has started to break through the outer capsule of the prostate gland and may be in the nearby tubes that transport semen (seminal vesicles).


Stage 4

The cancer has spread beyond the prostate gland to nearby structures such as the bladder or back passage (rectum), or to more distant organs such as the bones or liver.

If the cancer has spread to other parts of the body this is known as metastatic, secondary, or advanced prostate cancer.


Recurrent Prostate Cancer


Recurrent prostate cancer is cancer that has recurred (returned) after it has been treated. The cancer may come back in the prostate or in other parts of the body.


Even if your cancer was treated with initial primary therapy (surgery or radiation) there is always a probability that the cancer will reoccur. About 20-30% of men will relapse (have the cancer detected on a blood test) after the five-year mark following initial therapy. The likelihood of recurrence depends on the extent and aggressiveness of the cancer.